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dc.contributor.authorYang, Y.
dc.contributor.authorZhou, M.
dc.contributor.authorWang, T.
dc.contributor.authorYao, B.
dc.contributor.authorHan, P.
dc.contributor.authorJi, D.
dc.contributor.authorZhou, W.
dc.contributor.authorSun, Y.
dc.contributor.authorWang, G.
dc.contributor.authorWang, P.
dc.descriptionAtmospheric CO2 mole fractions are observed at Beijing (BJ), Xianghe (XH), and Xinglong (XL) in North China using Picarro G2301 cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. The measurement system is described comprehensively for the first time. The geographical distances among these three sites are within 200 km, but they have very different surrounding environments: BJ is inside the megacity; XH is in the suburban area; XL is in the countryside on a mountain. The mean and standard deviation of CO2 mole fractions at BJ, XH, and XL between October 2018 and September 2019 are 448.4±12.8, 436.0±9.2, and 420.6±8.2 ppm, respectively. The seasonal variations of CO2 at these three sites are similar, with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer, which is dominated by the terrestrial ecosystem. However, the seasonal variations of CO2 at BJ and XH are more affected by human activities as compared to XL. Using CO2 at XL as the background, CO2 enhancements are observed simultaneously at BJ and XH. The diurnal variations of CO2 are driven by the boundary layer height, photosynthesis, and human activities at BJ, XH, and XL. We also compare the CO2 measurements at BJ, XH, and XL with five urban sites in the USA, and it is found that the CO2 mean concentration at BJ is the largest. Moreover, we address the impact of the wind on the CO2 mole fractions at BJ and XL. This study provides an insight into the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 mole fractions in North China.
dc.titleSpatial and temporal variations of CO₂ mole fractions observed at Beijing, Xianghe and Xinglong in North China
dc.subject.frascatiEarth and related Environmental sciences
dc.source.titleAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics

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